Affordability Report 2021

The 2021 Affordability Report, released in December 2021, takes stock of connectivity trends today to suggest a new future for Universal Service & Access Funds. It builds from broader theories of industrial policy — namely the ‘moonshot thinking’ that relates to the public-private partnerships that sent the first human beings to the moon — to re-examine the shortcomings of USAFs today and propose new ways forward for these institutions.

Affordability Report 2021 (PDF)

Affordability Report 2021 (HTML)

Highlights 2021: Bangladesh

Executive Summary (English)

Executive Summary (Spanish)

Executive Summary (French)